This episode is part of the continuing story of how we sailed from the cold north to the sunny Mediterranian sea on the european waterways.
In Episode 4 we sail from the last city in Germany, Haren to Holland towards Groningen on the Haren Rütenbrock canal.
Also this episode contains 6 important tips to prepare for and enter locks on the european waterways.
This is our first time in the small locks with lots of current and close to other boats. We have some moderate drama in the first lock where another boat gets close several times and throughout the day in other locks.
We get some plastic in the propeller and the engine stops and the boat is floating in the canal without power.
We sail in a convoy with two other boats, a big red boat and a Finnish one. At the end of the canal the two other boats turn left and we turn right towards Ter Apel and Groningen.
During the day we pass many bridges, some are big concrete/steel bridges others are so small that one man can turn them easily.
This blog post is part of the continuing story of how we sailed from the cold north to the sunny Mediterranean sea on the european waterways.
In Blog #3 we entered the Elbe Weser canal and finally got a taste of some stress free canal sailing.
We continued all the way to Bremerhaven, then up the river Eems to Geeste canal,through Oldenburg and to Haren on the Mittelland kanal.
Here one week later we have reached the last city in Germany, Haren. From here we have to enter the Haren Rütenbrock canal, cross the dutch border then turn right onto the Ter Apelkanaal towards our goal, the city Groningen. It will be a trip of 80 kilometers with 15 locks and around 70 opening bridges and it took us 3 days.
Ready for the first lock in Haren.
In Haren we showed up at the lock at the hour of opening eager to get started and full of positive energy on a nice sunny day.
This was the first time we would be in a small lock with other boats, at this time we still didn’t have much experience with locks. All locks are different and you never know beforehand how to tie up in them and so much can go wrong.
The lock opened up and we entered just after a motorboat from Finland and after us came a large dark red motorboat.
Some of the bollards in the wall were broken and the distance between them was too far for our small boat so we decided to set both ropes on the same bollard in the middle. This also has the advantage that one person can easily control both ropes, standing in the middle of the boat.
Suddenly I noticed that the finnish boat beside us was moving closer to us and I asked him to watch out. One thing to always look out for in locks is to always keep an eye on the other boats as people don’t always notice if their boat is moving. Everybody makes mistakes sometimes in these small locks, there is no way around it.
I’m recommending the finnish captain to check his ropes as I suspect his boat will move again when the water starts to flow into the lock.
The Admiral and I agree that it’s best that she watches our boat towards the finnish boat and that I handle the ropes alone.
It was lucky that we had both ropes together in this configuration and not one rope far away.
The lockmaster closed the gate and water started to flow in. Notice how I tighten up the ropes as the water rises. It is very important in the lock to constantly watch your boat and especially the ropes as water level can sometimes change surprisingly fast.
Again the boat from Finland gets close to La Sardina but the Admiral manages to keep it away. She continues to assist the other boat and it gets close several more times.
The water is now so high that it’s time to move the ropes to the upper bollard.
A curious bystander asks where we are going, I explain to him in German that we are sailing to Groningen in Holland.
Then the lock keeper is collecting a small fee for our transit to Holland, I think the amount was only 5 euros. He is also asking which direction we are going after this canal ends. We will be turning right towards Groningen, the lock keeper will then inform the lock keepers on that other canal that a boat is moving towards them.
The gates have opened and that also means there is a current flowing in the lock and suddenly the finnish boat starts to move back with the current. He is very close to hitting the red boat behind us. Again the Admiral is helping them gain control of their boat.
The finnish boat leaves the lock and I get my receipt and we are ready to leave as well.
As we sail out we can admire the beautiful historic ships on the starboard side.
Tips for locks
A few tips and tricks regarding tying up in locks.
1: Never expect lock keepers to be able to help you in tying up. They will in some cases help you but mostly they don’t have the time and they might not even be at the lock physically. Many locks are remote controlled and the lock keeper might be 20 kilometers away watching you on a camera.
Always be prepared to handle everything yourself.
2: You should always without exception run lines back to your boat and never ever only run them one way. It is dangerous to tie up one way as you would have to crawl up on the ground and back again with your lines. Always avoid using the stairs in locks if possible, they can be slippery, be extremely dirty and pose health problems if you cut your self or may even lack maintenance .
Also you will run the risk of not being able to retrieve your lines when it’s time to leave the lock, your boat might not end up on the level you expect and getting your lines back might be impossible. Tying up after the lock and walking back for your lines will often be difficult also as many locks are fenced in.
3: Have all lines prepared every single time you enter a lock. Always keep all lines well coiled and ready for use with a moment’s notice.
4: Always follow lock keepers instructions without discussions.
They may know that another large boat or even a convoy is on the way and they want to make sure there is space for those boats also.
If you are sailing a smaller boat like me then lock keepers might insist that you go in last, that is because they want smaller boats to tie up on the side of larger boats. Again to fit so many boats as possible in the lock.
5: Always wear shoes
Being barefoot or wearing flip flops is a bad idea in locks as things often happen extremely fast and you can hurt yourself or others if you are not able to hold your boat because your feet are slipping across the deck.
6: Wear lifewest when in locks.
Lifewest is mandatory in most locks and lock keepers will often refuse to operate the lock until everybody is wearing a west. Falling overboard and being unconscious in a lock with strong current is very dangerous and a number of sailors die for that very reason every year.
Feel free to ask questions about locks or anything else in the comments below.
Under the bridges
We have reached the first of 70 opening bridges that we need to pass on our trip to Groningen. Together with the finnish boat and the red boat we are sailing in a convoy so they don’t have to open the bridges too often. The lock keepers are sometimes stationed on a specific bridge all the time but often they are following us on mopeds, cars, bicycles or even by walking depending on distance between the bridges and locks. Bridges vary from large steel reinforced concrete bridges to small bridges that can be opened manually by one man swinging them to the side.
We continue along the canal and it quickly becomes routine with the bridges, the workers know where our convoy is and they know almost to the minute when we will arrive at the next lock or opening bridge.
On a stretch without locks and only bridges the Admiral organizes some breakfast.
We are inside another lock with the finnish and the red boat again. This time the big red boat is directly behind us.
Also in this lock it seems to be best that I control the ropes and the Admiral keep an eye on the finnish boat in case of problems. The current is very strong in these locks and it’s difficult to control the boats.
I look back often in this lock because the large red boat is very very close to our mast on deck. But there is no problem from that direction.
We continue and pass the border to Holland, it is the tiny blue sign up there. And then suddenly out of the blue engine problems.
Without warning the engine died with a clunky sound and slowly the boat drifted helplessly in the canal. The best I can think of is to steer the boat closer to land so we are not blocking the canal at the least. The Admiral tries desperately to hold on to anything on land, but there is not much to hold on to.
The large red motorboat passes us and asks what is going on, I shout back to them that we hit a piece of wood or something.
When we have the boat under control close to land I pull up the outboard engine and discover a plastic bag is stuck in the propeller. Get it cut off with a knife and start the engine up again, but it acts up a little in the beginning. Have to restart it a few times before it runs normal again.
That was quite a shocker, but luckily the bag didn’t do any damage to our engine. On our trip to the mediterranian ocean this would happen a handful times again, but luckily it never did any damage to our engine
We have reached the last lock and bridge on this canal.
The finnish and the red motorboat both turn left and we turn right towards Ter Apel. Today’s first convoy has ended, but we did meet the finnish boat again in Amsterdam some months later.
We continued along the Ter ApelKanaal and later that day we were part of yet another convoy while sailing towards Groningen.
In this episode 3 we arrive in Kiel, Germany and enter our very first lock in the Kiel Canal. It was also our first experience with strong river currents that makes for some very tense moments when trying to enter Cuxhaven. In Cuxhaven they have a very interesting wind semaphore that was used to warn passing sailors of bad weather in the North Sea. We get the mast down and start the trip on German canals towards Holland.
Hello world and welcome to Blog #3 where I will tell you about the trip through the rivers and canals of Germany. On the river Elbe we get a taste of how powerful the current can be and it gets very tense onboard.
In Cuxhaven we get the mast of and we enter the Elbe Weser canal and get our first taste of some stress free canal sailing.
In Blog #2 I wrote about how we left my small island in the cold north on a very unusually nice sunny day. Later that day we arrived in the city Kiel in Germany after a 7 hour long trip running only by engine. This was the longest we had ever been running on engine alone as we usually have a lot of wind in the north.
In Germany we had to enter our very first lock at the Kiel canal and we were very excited. We had studied so much for the CEVNI certificate and we knew all the theory but had absolutely no practical experience.
In this canal the merchant vessels enter first and we had to wait for the special light signal for pleasure boats.
We came in and everything was very easy, no problem to tie up at all. Only slight problem was the slippery wooden bridge, one step outside the rubber mats and it was like soap.
The level difference was less than a meter and it changed so slowly that we could hardly feel it.
So we entered the Kiel canal after the lock.
This canal is 98 kilometers long but we took it nice and easy and spent a few days on the trip with several stops and then some days in the final port of Brunsbuttel.
In Brunsbuttel I could stand on top of the locks and see how the current changed during the day on the river Elbe. For every 6 hours it would switch direction and it looked like the current was very very strong.
In the inner parts of Denmark where I had been sailing, there is almost never any current or tide to speak of. It is only towards the West sea that we have current and tide, but I have never sailed there. So I was completely unprepared for what was coming. I studied tide tables and researched on the internet to be as prepared as possible. I figured that we should not try to fight the current but sail with it, but I never realized how difficult it would be to leave the river and enter a marina at our destination. This would almost be fatal and nearly ended our trip before it started for real!
So one day we finally headed out into the river Elbe through the lock at the time where the current was changing to the direction of the city Cuxhaven, which is where we wanted to get our mast down.
During the trip down the river towards Cuxhaven the current picked up and became stronger and stronger. Almost to the point where our rudder was not working anymore. This happens when the following current is so strong that not enough water is streaming over the rudder. It can be very dangerous as you can lose control of the boat and just go downriver with no steering at all.
At one point we were being moved directly towards a large metal buoy and the rudder didn’t react fast enough, but I could luckily turn the engine. I sped up the engine and was able to avoid the buoy by a few meters. Okay, this incident got my attention and it was clear that we had a problem with this current.
But we reached Cuxhafen and now came the real shock of the day. When it was time to steer towards land it fast became clear that there was no way that this boat would be able to fight the current sideways towards the entrance. We were being pushed downriver towards the North sea with a current which was at least 5 knots, resistance was futile. Called off the entrance attempt and turned the boat towards the ocean. After a short streck down the river I turned the boat into the current with the engine and turned it all the way up, at much higher revs than I have ever done before.
We were now able to get closer to the entrance at the low speed of half a knot, sometimes even less than that. That were some really nerve wracking minutes while staring at the coast, the entrance and the gps showing the speed. If the speed had fallen to zero, I would have to call it off again and we would have had no other choice than to let the river push us out to the sea and come back when the tide had changed many hours later.
However, suddenly we were at the harbour entrance and safe inside in the calm water.
But I sure did learn an important lesson about currents and I never forgot about that on the rest of our trip.
The big mistake I made was to arrive at my end point while the current was still strong. The right way would have been when the current ends and just before it starts to reverse. I entered into the Elbe at Brunsbuttel when the current was changing but I should have planned it for the ending point at Cuxhaven instead. So I should have entered when the current was already running towards the ocean and landed in Cuxhaven around the time it ended.
We spent a few days in SVC Marina in Cuxhaven and then moved La Sardina to City Marina just around the corner. We still had to sail out to the river, but with my newly painfully acquired knowledge about tide, we moved exactly in the sweet spot when the current stopped to change direction and there were no problems.
Close to the marina is there a historic weather semaphore from 1903, which was used to show the weather conditions in the ocean for the ships passing by on the Elbe river up until radio messages took over. It has some very interesting mechanical gears and details.
It was separated into two parts, one part marked with a B showed the weather at Borkum and the H part showed weather at Helgoland.
The arms at top show the wind force using the Beaufort scale, each arm indicates two forces. The circles show the wind direction.
Even today the semaphore is showing the actual weather situation at Borkum and Helgoland. A local group is maintaining this very peculiar historic landmark.
Getting ready and then up the river
In City Marina I assembled the crutches again and a nearby shipyard removed the mast and put it on deck.
Then we were ready for the next part of our trip. We had to go back up river to Otterndorf and enter the small Elbe Weser canal and sail towards Bremerhaven.
This time I had prepared the timing of our trip better, no way I wanted to be caught in that river in the middle of a strong current at the wrong time again.
I wanted to arrive at Otterndorf around the time the current changes when the tide is at its highest. That way we would have the most water under our keel when attempting to enter Otterndorf.
There is a small canal marked with green buoys that must be followed exactly as this area close to the coast is very flat. In our boat with our engine it would be impossible to follow this marked canal in the strong current, we would simply be swept away like a small branch in the river. So, no current this time was crucial.
Finally time to move on, got the engine started and called the lock master on the radio and gave him a taste of, in my opinion, my best german. Slowly we sailed up to the lock in between all the houses in the neighborhood by the marina. It was a strange feeling to have the mast on deck, and I was constantly bumping into it with my head.
The lock opened up and we were finally ready to enter the river Elbe again. This time with a hopefully better plan.
In Cuxhaven the fishermen have a special signaling system where they will blow their horns when entering and leaving the harbour. The current is so strong outside that they can simply not sail in and out at the same time. Those sailing in have the right of way and those inside, who are protected from the current, yield.
As we head for the entrance a fishing ship catching up blows his horn and I chime in with my newly bought compressor horn. But my horn suddenly doesn’t sound that impressive at all.
We went out into the Elbe and the current was giving us a good push upriver and when we arrived at the small canal at Otterndorf there was no current left at all. We sailed into the tiny canal and entered Otterndorf marina with no incidents.
It seemed that I had finally learned how to plan and use the current to my advantage.
We continued down the Elbe Weser canal the next day, finally we got a taste of the real quiet idyllic canal sailing life.
Thank you for reading and don’t miss Blog #4 where we visit the Dutch people in the lower country of Holland. We also visit the dutch Venice and see a lot of windmills but absolutely no tulips in the fields.
And don’t forget: Boating is hours of pleasure interrupted by moments of sheer panic 🙂
This is Blog 2 where I will tell you a little more about living on a small island and preparing the boat for the waterways.
Moving to a small island in the cold north
In the years 2013 and 2014 I was sailing around Denmark in the summer on La Sardina while working as an IT consultant onboard. I managed to visit most of Denmark this way step by step.
Born and raised in a small village inland with no oceans anywhere I was fascinated with this new world with boats and the sea. Especially I liked being on the smaller islands of Denmark and I was growing tired of the big city, Copenhagen. It seemed like a good idea to live on one of these small islands.
In 2014 we bought a small house on one of the islands I had visited on my voyages, Ærø. It was a small island only 25 kilometers long and no more than 9 kilometers wide. The island has around 6000 inhabitants in 3 main villages. The house was in the larger village of Marstal that has a big marina with marine shops and shipyards.
This city is very famous for its impressive shipping history where it had up to 400 large schooners in its heydays. Even today it is a must to visit for the many historic wooden ships we still have sailing around in Denmark.
I always dreamed of having one of those wooden boats but it takes a lot of work to maintain them and because I’m such a big procrastinator it will never ever work.
It is also a good island for a photographer to be on. It is well known for its many spectacular sunrises and sunsets with almost magic colors. Also it has very beautiful landscapes.
The island was also very popular among many eloping wedding couples and there were around 1000 weddings a year when I arrived there. In the end the island had more than 5000 weddings a year, before bureaucracy and legislation axed the wedding business.
Well, I started working as a full time wedding photographer on the island and during the next 4 years I photographed more than 600 weddings ranging from civil ceremonies only 30 minutes long to all inclusive 15 hour church weddings with hundreds of guests.
In 2018 it was time to move on from this small island in the cold north in search of nice sunny days, which are so rare for us. My body does not handle the cold and humid climate so well anymore.
I wanted to sail to the mediterranian sea because as everybody knows they have nice sunny days all the time, even in winter it’s nice.
The obvious route would be to sail into the north sea through the northeast channel and head south through the english channel, across the bay of Biscay and finally pass Gibraltar.
But another more interesting route would be through the inland european waterways with their charm and history. This ended up being the route we chose.
Preparing for the waterways.
Before making this trip from the cold north to the mediterranian on the inland waterways there are a few things that must be in order.
You need a CEVNI certificate that proves you have learned the rules and regulations of the rivers and canals.
You need to use your VHF radio on the rivers and you must have a radio certificate to use it legally, and more importantly to not disturb the traffic.
Your boat needs to be registered. Normally in Denmark we don’t register pleasure boats but all other european countries expect such a registration paper.
You need some kind of VAT paid certificate or documentation or else you run the risk of having your boat impounded by customs officials in other countries. My boat is from before the VAT was even invented but just in case I got the certificate made.
Liability insurance is needed, you should already have this, many marinas will check it and will refuse you if you don’t have it. You also need the insurance to be extended to cover your trip in other countries and the coverage needs to be more than a million Euros.
In February 2018 I finally had all papers and requirements in place and everything was ready except the boat. I wanted to start the trip around March/April 2018.
Making the boat ready
I had been procrastinating regarding work on the boat and off course all this work still had to be done.
Bottom had to be cleaned and painted, and crutches to keep the mast on deck had to be created.
Weather was really acting up this winter and it was not possible to start any work on the boat until April 2018. But then finally the weather relaxed just enough to do some outside work.
First project was to get the boat on land, clean the bottom and paint it again.
It had been 2 years in the water and it was covered with growth. I’m such a procrastinator that it simply never happens that I get the boat on land every winter as I’m supposed to and this is always the result.
Many many kilos of barnacles and oysters had to be removed.
On the other hand, I’m good at always giving the bottom extra layers of antifouling when I finally get it on land. The work I did here lasted for 2 whole years sailing across Europe.
Also I polished the sides so it would look nice and shiny for the trip. Fitted extra boatnames in front which is a requirement on the rivers that makes it easier for lock masters to identify our boat.
And the boat came back into the water and what a difference this new clean bottom made in speed and so much easier to steer.
Next project was to build those crutches so the mast could be stored on deck. It took a lot of watching videos and reading on the internet before I had a clear idea of a design.
But the work went well and after a few days playing around I finally had a working solution that was easy to store and safe, even in case of waves which can happen on larger rivers and lakes.
And finally one unusually sunny day in the cold north everything was ready. Boat was prepared, provisions loaded and I was removing the dock lines for the final time.
A course for Kiel in Germany had been plotted and off into the ocean we went on this sunny and absolutely windless day.
In the following years I would spend as much time on the boat as possible. All vacations and weekends I went out sailing. Even on work days in the season I would go for a quick sail after being in the cubicle all day. We were living very close to the coast of Copenhagen and it was only a few short minutes to walk to the boat.
I gained a lot of import routine in preparing the boat, leaving and arriving, hoisting sail and tacking in that period of the first season.
It was not always smooth sailing and often I was close to hitting the many buoys in Copenhagen port.
Also had to learn to take care of the boom and you can see here. Near miss or a near hit.ufff
So here I was sailing around the port in Copenhagen among cruise ships, merchant vessels and off course a lot of pleasure boats.
It was a good place to get more sailing experience because it was very protected from waves and wind. When it was very windy with high waves I would sail inside the walls of Copenhagen port and on more pleasant days I would sail outside in the strait towards Sweden.
As I gained more and more experience I wanted to explore all of Denmark on the 7 danish seas.
Started out on small weekend trips with the admiral and soon we sailed further and further and deeper into the ocean.
I also took up fishing in those years. Normally I wouldn’t even touch a fish with a pole and much less eat it. But now on a boat I thought it could be fun to catch some. The admiral insisted that if I was to catch fish then I also had to eat them and not just eat a steak.
Well challenge accepted, bought some equipment and found a work colleague that was an expert in fishing.
Soon we were catching hornfisk, codfish and many other species. At first it was difficult for me to eat them but fresh fish is something completely different. They taste so fresh and there is no foul smell and now I enjoy fresh fish as often as possible.
Well now I was the proud owner of a small boat located in a marina 26 nautical miles(30 miles, 48 kilometers) from Copenhagen that needed to be moved to her new home marina in the city. I could hardly wait to get it home, everyday I was studying the weather forecasts almost every hour. But to no avail the weather in the cold north is rough and we had high winds for weeks.
But finally one day the weather was reasonable and finally I could bring it to Copenhagen. It turned out to be quite a trip for a beginner like me. First we hit the ground inside the other marina, lesson learned: don’t sail too close to the bridge with small boats! But it came off the ground with some wiggling and out into the ocean. Up came the sails and everything was working. But even though I knew all the theory of navigation and had even bought all the paper maps(this was before GPS devices became really big) I didn’t pay enough attention to our actual location. One thing the boat also missed was a depth charger, so I had no idea how much water I had under the keel. So south of the island Amager we got way too close to the coast and bumped into a rock. Turned the boat around immediately and nothing more happened.
Well that was quite a shock but a very important lesson was learned. Don’t forget where you are in a boat!
But I did arrive home to Copenhagen after my very first sailing trip in my own boat.
Well here I was with my freshly printed certificate of competency and nowhere to sail with no boat and no actual experience at all. The sailing season in the cold north is short only a few months and here we were eager to sail. I knew people with boats and pestered them all about taking me with them on their next trip. But soon I learned a dark truth about the boat world: people actually rarely sail their boats. Most only a handful of times during the short season. Some even never leave the pier during the entire season. Growing quite desperate with the situation and the vaning sailing season I decided to buy a small sailing boat. I was still not 100% sure of my own commitment and time available but I wanted some experience now and I would not just let the sailing season end without some more sailing.
My requirements for a sailing boat was first and most important of all that it must be sailing ready right now. I’m such a big procrastinator and a year long project was not in my plans. Most likely I would never have finished. I wanted to sail right now before the season ended. Second requirement was that It must not be bigger than I can sail it alone. Larger boats can be very difficult or even impossible to sail alone. Especially leaving and arriving at the dock can be problematic alone.
Started searching papers and the internet for boats and soon this old Albin Viggen turned up.
It was owned by a family that just arrived home from their summer sailing trip and it was 100% ready to go here and now. It had a good size for solo sailing and it was even reasonably priced as the market was at that time. The price was so low that it was no problem if I later wanted to get rid of it. It was located in a marina Vallensbæk just south of Copenhagen so it would be no problem to bring it home. At that time I was convinced that if continuing to sail I would get something in the 40 foot range.
Contacted the owner and we met up for a test trip. This boat turned out to be exactly what I was looking for and I bought it on the spot.
Doing my research I found a private sailing teacher with his own boat that was offering the official curriculum in 7 days total and the last day would be exam day with a certified censor.
This was a much better solution for me and I even talked my wife (the later Admiral) into participating.
The course started and it came with quite a few surprises for us. The schedule for the course was quite straightforward. Breakfast on board and then studying navigation, rules and safety on boats. Then lunch and then sailing on the boat all afternoon.
Surprise number one was how tiresome for the body it is to be on a boat. As the boat is moving all the time the body can never rest. Constantly it needs to compensate for movements. Also a boat, even a big boat is a cramped place. All the time I had to duck, move up and down the ladder and even getting onboard was something giving sore muscles for a lifelong landlubber. So no long evenings in the cockpit enjoying the long light evenings of the cold north. I was fast asleep at 9 every evening.
Surprice number 2 was how nice it was to sail in a sailboat. The sound of the boat moving through the water and the wind in the sails quickly convinced me that I was not a motorboater but a sailboater.
We finished the course and both got the certificate and we were now officially real sailors. Or sort of 🙂
In 2009 I was happily working as an IT consultant in Copenhagen in the cold northern part of Europe. Days were long and intense but still I had some free time to spare on something new and exciting.
Being born and raised in a small village in the inland part of Denmark meant I had only a very few times been on a pleasure boat. My knowledge of sailing, navigation and caring for a boat was literally zero. I even had a strong tendency to become seasick on ferries so everything was against me from the beginning.
But none of that sussed me away from dreaming about sailing around the Copenhagen port with the old channels, docks and the old defense islands in the strait of Øresund. Maybe even whizzing to Sweden across the strait could be a fun activity on the weekends.
My idea was to get a slick, fast small motorboat of the type with a big V8 engine. Here in the cold north a certificate is needed for fast motorboats, but it’s no big problem and it can be had after participating in a short weekend course. Some even offer the certificate in one single day.
But I was a little worried about the low amount of general knowledge I would obtain on such a short course. Coming from a background of no boats and suddenly being on an ocean kind of worried me a little. How about boyes, rules, regulations and safety, I had no knowledge about anything relating to boats and the ocean.
Next level would be to obtain a certificate of competency for yachtsmen in a sailing club. Then I would learn everything about navigation and safety and this card would also be valid for a fast motorboat. But I quickly realised the long timeframe for this certificate, people were often spending 1-2 years to get this certificate in sailing clubs. This did certainly not fit my impatient nature !!